A casino, also known as a gambling house or a gaming establishment, is a place where people can play a variety of games of chance for money. Some casinos are standalone, while others are combined with hotels, resorts, restaurants, retail shops or other tourist attractions. Gambling is primarily illegal in many countries, but casinos exist in areas where the law does not prohibit it. Some governments regulate the operations of casinos while others ban them altogether. In the United States, federal and state laws govern casino gambling.
In 2008, about 24% of American adults reported visiting a casino at least once in the previous year. The average annual visit was 3.6 times per person. The most popular casino activities were playing slot machines and other electronic devices, followed by blackjack, poker and craps.
Most casino games are based on chance, although some involve skill. In general, the house always has a mathematical advantage over players, whether the game is played with cards, dice or a spinning wheel. Some casinos employ sophisticated technology to monitor and control the games. For example, in poker and some table games, specialized chips with built-in microcircuitry allow the house to track the amount of money wagered minute by minute. Casinos also monitor game results and payouts using video cameras.
The casino industry is regulated and heavily taxed. The casinos generate considerable revenue and employment, but their overall economic impact is mixed. Some economists believe that casinos stimulate local entertainment spending, while others point to studies indicating that compulsive gambling hurts the gamblers themselves and their families, as well as society at large through lost productivity and health care costs.
Most casinos are designed to appeal to a wide audience of visitors with amenities such as dining, shopping and entertainment. Many feature a luxurious interior, with opulent furnishings and richly colored walls and floors. Red is a common color in casino design, as it is thought to stimulate the appetite and encourage gamblers to spend more money. Many casinos also use a high level of sound and light to amplify the atmosphere and create an exciting, energetic environment. In addition, the large amounts of currency handled within casinos make them susceptible to cheating and theft by both patrons and employees. Security measures are therefore important to ensure the integrity of the games and the safety of the patrons. Some casinos employ a uniform dress code for their staff to deter cheating.